Lee surrendered to Union forces at Appomattox, putting an end to the bloodiest war in American history. Now, years after Lee's surrender, five historians and authors lead the conversation about the Civil War's enduring legacy. Smith and won the Wienefeld Award for the best dissertation in history. Since she has studied and taught about the Old South, slavery, and the social and cultural contradictions of antebellum America at the University of Idaho and Iowa State University.
Slavery on the Western Border: This belief in the mild nature of Missouri slavery has largely persisted in spite of the more complex picture painted by the men and women who actually endured enslavement in the state. Southerners who owned a large number of slaves generally chose to migrate to regions where they believed slavery was secure and where they could engage in large-scale cotton production.
Neither description applied to Missouri. In fact, slavery in western Missouri was often just as brutal as elsewhere in the South.
Missouri instead emerged as a magnet for small-scale slaveholders, who were interested in practicing the diversified agriculture found in their original homes in the Upper South.
The small number of slaves living on most Missouri slaveholdings altered the nature of the relationship between slaves and owners, as well as the family and community lives of enslaved people, but in the end these differences did not result in Essay over the civil war more humane form of slavery.
These new Missourians—both black and white—quickly set about building farms and communities that resembled those they left behind in their eastern homes.
Over time, however, they created a distinctive society that was profoundly shaped by the experience of small-scale slavery — on the eve of the Civil War, over 90 percent of Missouri slaveholders owned fewer than 10 slaves.
The profile of most Missouri slaveholding households resembled family farms rather than plantations. Most Missouri farmers practiced diversified agriculture, raising a combination of cash crops, such as tobacco and hemp, as well as corn and livestock.
They did not require a large number of workers to farm successfully and so many searched for other ways to keep slavery profitable. The result was a system of slavery that was economically flexible. Missouri slaveholders regularly employed slaves at non-agricultural tasks and Essay over the civil war out their underemployed workers to their neighbors.
In addition, they rarely hired overseers and instead often worked alongside their slaves, supervising and supplementing their labor in their homes and fields.
Small-scale slavery greatly influenced the work conditions and social interactions of black and white Missourians. Close living and working conditions frequently eroded the authority of owners and provided slaves with opportunities to resist their enslavement. Intimate relations resulted in better treatment for some slaves, but at the same time exposed others to the worst forms of physical and psychological abuse.
The small number of slaves living on individual farms forced enslaved men and women to look beyond their home for marriage partners. The average enslaved Missouri family consisted of a mother and her children living on one farm and the husband and father on another.
Most men only saw their families on the weekends. In spite of these many challenges, enslaved Missourians tenaciously created and maintained strong family ties that often endured for many years. Enslaved Missourians also resisted isolation by creating social and kinship networks within rural neighborhoods.
They established relationships with other enslaved people as they traveled throughout the countryside running errands for their owners, on hiring assignments, or visiting family members.
Nov 20, · Essay on The Civil War and Reconstruction. The Civil War was the turning point in the US history, while the Reconstruction era has completed the achievements of the Civil War and changes launched by the war/5(10). In fact, the war is better portrayed as a series of events with unique causative factors, either contributing to the fissure that resulted in the war, or influenced the war itself. While current belief subjugates the causes of the war to factors other than slavery and race relations, it cannot be dismissed that the issue still played a critical role/5(3). "The Civil War in Popular Culture is an eclectic approach covering a variety of subjects, including Civil War myth and memory, films, novels, battlefield preservation and monuments, souvenirs, race and gender politics, the internet, war gaming, military medicine, and battle field reenactment.
Most owners allowed slaves to celebrate with family and friends at weddings, births, and funerals, as well as at work-related parties such as corn huskings, but slaves also clandestinely attended religious services led by black preachers, visited their loved ones without permission, or gambled and danced at underground parties in the woods.
Additionally, knowledge of the local geography and friendships cultivated through years of socializing served enslaved Missourians well as they approached the revolutionary moment of emancipation.
Missouri was convulsed by dramatic demographic and political changes in the years leading up to the Civil War. This influx of non-slaveholding settlers resulted in a decline of enslaved people as a percentage of the total population, from 18 percent in to 10 percent in Although most white Missourians remained supportive of slavery, a small minority, primarily comprised of these newcomers, began to voice criticisms of the institution.
Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act inwhich allowed the new residents of the territories to determine the status of slavery, white Missourians generally agreed that it was essential that Kansas become a slave state. In order to ensure that outcome, a number of western Missourians staked land claims in Kansas — some even moved there with their slaves, while many others crossed the state line into Kansas Territory to vote illegally on election days in and Violence soon erupted between Free-Soil and proslavery forces along the Missouri-Kansas border.
White Missourians were troubled by the national political implications of a free soil victory in Kansas, but they were more concerned that it would destabilize slavery in Missouri. Proslavery conventions and vigilante committees, such as the Platte County Self Defensive Association, were organized in western Missouri in response to the perceived abolitionist threat in Kansas.
In reality, abolitionists did not swarm over the border to liberate Missouri slaves, but both white and black Missourians understood that if fugitives successfully made their way to Kansas, there was a good chance they would find sympathetic residents who would aid them in their quest for freedom.
Lanewhich ran north through Nebraska Territory and across Iowa to freedom. In spite of their growing concerns about the stability of slavery in Missouri, most white Missourians voted against secession in early In the end, a majority of Missourians decided to remain in the Union, which posed no immediate threat to slavery in the border states.
The End of Border Slavery The crisis over Kansas statehood exposed the vulnerability of border slavery, but the explosive violence of the Civil War years resulted in its ultimate destruction.
The Union Army swept through Missouri during the early months of the war, and a Confederate guerrilla insurgency emerged to counter what many considered an enemy occupation.
Even as white Missourians desperately tried to isolate slaves from the political discussions of the day, enslaved people actively worked to collect and share information with one other about what the war might mean for them.
They simply had less incentive to work hard for their owners as discipline eroded and as freedom appeared possible. White Missourians recognized that the greatest threat to slavery was that their slaves would simply leave.
Enslaved Missourians capitalized on the presence of the Union military and the political divisions among white Missourians and fled their owners in large numbers.
As they ran away, they took advantage of the intricate web of social relations that they had so carefully cultivated during slavery, putting their associations and knowledge of the local geography to good use.The Civil War started with the Confederate shelling of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, on April 12, Washington Territory was just under eight years old and more than a quarter century away from statehood.
In fact, the war is better portrayed as a series of events with unique causative factors, either contributing to the fissure that resulted in the war, or influenced the war itself.
While current belief subjugates the causes of the war to factors other than slavery and race relations, it cannot be dismissed that the issue still played a critical role/5(3). After the civil war reconstruction had been made and Jim Crow has been overcome.
The most important is north and south had united. United is very important to a country so people should prevent war before caused more people dead.
In the civil war had changed the . Bruce Catton's Reflections on the Civil War is the magisterial summary of a great historian who thought deeply on the Civil War and its meaning over the course of a lifetime. This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the .
English Civil War; Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms: The victory of the Parliamentarian New Model Army over the Royalist Army at the Battle of Naseby on 14 June marked the decisive turning point in the English Civil War.