However, a major obstacle to the goal of improving and expanding mental health services in low-income countries LIC like Indonesia is the comparative lack of evidence about how mental health services in LIC function in actual practice. Mental health problems can affect the way you think, feel and behave.
Copyright notice Abstract This article examines children and adolescent exposure to violence in various contexts. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the definitions and types of violence reported in studies on victimization using the ecological systems framework.
The findings indicated that research differed in terminologies, conceptual and operational definitions, sample sizes and age group classification for children and adolescents.
Further, studies lacked focus on the co-occurrence and inter-relatedness of victimization, and how these factors might affect the outcomes. Many studies employed a cross-sectional design, which limits strong conclusions about the temporal order of victimization experiences and outcomes.
Future research efforts need more consistency among researchers in conceptual and operational definitions and the use of more rigorous designs.
Increased holistic assessments are critical for effective prevention and intervention strategies for at-risk children and adolescents Keywords: As argued by Finkelhor et al.
To illustrate, children and adolescents who are exposed to one type of violence e. This sort of integration of different forms of violence is supported by research studies, which show that multiple victimizations are associated with more post-traumatic stress disorder PTSDrepeated victimization and perpetration of violence, which calls for prevention and intervention strategies that address multiple forms of violence perpetration and victimization e.
Empirical and theoretical studies published from towhich focused primarily on the definition, measures, and effects of violence victimization occurring during childhood and adolescence were reviewed.
Of the peer-reviewed journal articles, articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. Although most of the sources reviewed included adolescents-only samples, some contained both children and adolescents in their samples cross-sectionalwhile other studies focused on adult samples to examine violence victimization during childhood or adolescence retrospective or longitudinal.
Victimization types were examined based on how they have been conceptually and operationally defined in the literature. This review was based on: Categories of victimization discussed in the subsequent sections are largely based on the outcomes literature on children and adolescent victimization.
The majority of outcome articles from the peer-reviewed journals focused on the following victimization types: Findings from these studies suggest that these types of victimization are associated with negative physical, emotional, psychological, and social outcomes.
The intent of the perpetrator is to harm his or her victim.
Examples of violent crimes include attempted or completed rape, sexual assault, personal robbery or simple assault Bureau of Justice Statistics, Definitions may also include the means of violence perpetration, such as use of weapons to threaten or cause injury to the victims.
According to other definitions e. Ecological Systems Framework The ecological systems theory was first developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner in the s. The ecological environment is perceived as a set of nested structures, in which each structure is situated inside the next.
In recent years, researchers and practitioners have recognized the importance of a framework that considers assessment of risk and protective factors within multiple contexts.
Thus, understanding the behaviors and actions of family, peers, and community, as well as broader level influences, such as cultural characteristics is imperative. The following section examines findings from studies that were included in the review, which are categorized into following sub-sections: Microsystem The most direct influences in the outcomes associated with victimization are within the microsystem level, which consists of individuals and groups of individuals with whom the individual interact, and assigns subjective meanings to those interactions Heise, These direct influences include interpersonal relationships within the family, peer groups and school settings Bronfrenbrenner, Additionally, according to Kessler and Mageeexposure to family violence as a child renders vulnerability to maladaptive coping, to difficulties in handling interpersonal conflicts, and to increased emotional reactivity to life stresses.
Bronfenbrenner depicts the microsystem as a pattern of activities, social roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by the individual in a direct setting e. Nevertheless, studies have shown that both corporal punishment and physical abuse can potentially result in similar negative immediate and long-term outcomes on the victims Durrant, Emotional child maltreatment Emotional child maltreatment frequently occurs when caretakers display demeaning behaviors toward the child, marginalize the child from other siblings, show lack of love and nurturance, and subject the child to inappropriate levels of punishment National Victims Assistance Academy, Findings from the existing research however suggest that emotional abuse might have a stronger relationship to long-term behavioral problems, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors, social impairment, low self-esteem, and suicidal behaviors than other forms of maltreatment e.
Neglect According to a report by the US Department of Health and Human Servicesneglect was the most common form of maltreatment in Furthermore, the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment found that there were no significant changes documented in the rates of child neglect from to as cited by Daro, As a result, adolescent neglect cases are frequently unsubstantiated and under-reported Fagan, A limited number of empirical studies have also examined the consequences of neglect.
Kinard also highlighted some issues regarding the outcomes of different types of maltreatment. First, in the case of multiple maltreatment experiences, outcomes may differ depending on which type of maltreatment first occurred.Bronfenbrenner's process—person—context—time model is used to examine theories that explain the adverse effects of economic deprivation on children's socioemotional development.
In his model, each of five structures of the ecological environment— microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, macrosystems, and chronosystems—is subsumed within the next higher level.
The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Violence Prevention The ultimate goal of the work of violence prevention is to stop violence before it begins. CDC uses a four-level social-ecological model (SEM) to better understand and prevent violence.1 Violence is complicated and results from a combination of multiple influences on behavior.
Bronfenbrenner is revered as one of the leading world authorities in the field of development. psychology. His most important brainchild was the ecological systems theory, where he defines the.
four concentric systems that are the micro-, the meso-, the exo- and the macrosystems. including members of the same and different species. Levels of Ecological Organization Ecosystems can be studied at small levels or at large levels.
The levels of organization are described below from the smallest to the largest: An organism is an individual living thing.
Ecological systems theory was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. He divided the environment into five different levels. The microsystem is the most influential, has the closest relationship to the person, and is the one where direct contact occurs. The mesosystem consists of interactions between a .
Indeed, Kelly's ecological metaphor (35, 36, 37, 79, 81), Kingry-Westergaard & Kelly's four constitutive components of the ecological approach, and Trickett's recent comprehensive review, just to name a few, emphasize the importance of elements pertaining .