Film as an art form has drawn on several earlier traditions in the fields such as oral storytellingliteraturetheatre and visual arts. By the 16th century necromantic ceremonies and the conjuring of ghostly apparitions by charlatan "magicians" and "witches" seemed commonplace.
Gerben Bakker, University of Essex Introduction Like other major innovations such as the automobile, electricity, chemicals and the airplane, cinema emerged in most Western countries at the same time. As the first form of industrialized mass-entertainment, it was all-pervasive.
From the s onwards, each year billions of cinema-tickets were sold and consumers who did not regularly visit the cinema became a minority. In Italy, today hardly significant in international entertainment, the film industry was the fourth-largest export industry before the First World War. In the depression-struck U.
Despite this economic significance, despite its rapid emergence and growth, despite its pronounced effect on the everyday life of consumers, and despite its importance as an early case of the industrialization of services, the economic history of the film industry has hardly been examined.
This article will limit itself exclusively to the economic development of the industry.
It will discuss just a few countries, mainly the U. This entry cannot do justice to developments in each and every country, given the nature of an encyclopedia article. This entry also limits itself to the evolution of the Western film industry, because it has been and still is the largest film industry in the world, in revenue terms, although this may well change in the future.
Before Cinema In the late eighteenth century most consumers enjoyed their entertainment in an informal, haphazard and often non-commercial way.
When making a trip they could suddenly meet a roadside entertainer, and their villages were often visited by traveling showmen, clowns and troubadours. Seasonal fairs attracted a large variety of musicians, magicians, dancers, fortune-tellers and sword-swallowers.
Only a few large cities harbored legitimate theaters, strictly regulated by the local and national rulers. This world was torn apart in two stages. First, most Western countries started to deregulate their entertainment industries, enabling many more entrepreneurs to enter the business and make far larger investments, for example in circuits of fixed stone theaters.
Most European countries followed during the nineteenth century. Britain, for example, deregulated in the mids, and France in the late s. The result of this was that commercial, formalized and standardized live entertainment emerged that destroyed a fair part of traditional entertainment.
The combined effect of liberalization, innovation and changes in business organization, made the industry grow rapidly throughout the nineteenth century, and integrated local and regional entertainment markets into national ones.
By the end of the nineteenth century, integrated national entertainment industries and markets maximized productivity attainable through process innovations. Creative inputs, for example, circulated swiftly along the venues — often in dedicated trains — coordinated by centralized booking offices, maximizing capital and labor utilization.
At the end of the nineteenth century, in the era of the second industrial revolution, falling working hours, rising disposable income, increasing urbanization, rapidly expanding transport networks and strong population growth resulted in a sharp rise in the demand for entertainment. The effect of this boom was further rapid growth of live entertainment through process innovations.
At the turn of the century, the production possibilities of the existing industry configuration were fully realized and further innovation within the existing live-entertainment industry could only increase productivity incrementally. At this moment, in a second stage, cinema emerged and in its turn destroyed this world, by industrializing it into the modern world of automated, standardized, tradable mass-entertainment, integrating the national entertainment markets into an international one.An essential reading list for understanding Hollywood — from David O.
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The global film industry shows healthy projections for the coming years, as the global box office revenue is forecast to increase from about 38 billion U.S. dollars in to nearly 50 billion U.
Star Wars franchise box office earnings. Home Market Releases for September 25th, September 25th, This week, Solo: A Star Wars Story hits the home market and while the film missed expectations at the box office, it is still a big enough hit to scare away most of the competition.
There are a number of releases on this week’s list that are worth picking up, like Pin Cushion. The film industry or motion picture industry, comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production companies, film studios, cinematography, animation, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel.